Wednesday, April 14, 2021

Altitude preference for coffee tree

Coffee quality is determined by organoleptic characteristics (cup quality), physical appearance and chemical constituents. Coffee from high altitude with open or medium shade and early to middle harvest periods had a superior bean quality.

As coffee species do not tolerate large changes in seasonality, yet do not flourish in very hot conditions, altitude is also an important factor. For every 100 m, temperature decreases on average by 0.6 °C. Higher altitudes in tropical regions, therefore, offer a cool environment where the yearly temperature does not fluctuate drastically, providing an ideal climate for coffee cultivation.

Air temperature factors have a direct effect on the growth of coffee plants, especially the formation of flowers and fruits and sensitivity to disease attacks. In general, high temperatures are affected by the altitude of the sea surface.

While the height of the appropriate place for the growth of Arabica coffee is 1000-2000m above sea level, whose temperature conditions range from 15 °C to 24 °C, and for the Robusta coffee <700 meters above sea level, whose temperature conditions range from 24 °C-30 °C.

C. canephora prefers a hotter climate and is more adapted to the lowlands (below 900 m altitude), though quality improves with altitude.
Altitude preference for coffee tree

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